Mehmet Hilmi Dogu1*, Nihan Nizam2, Rafet Eren1 and Elif Suyani
1Clinic of Hematology, Istanbul Training and Research Hospital, Turkey
2Clinic of Internal Medicine, Istanbul Training and Research Hospital, Turkey
Brucellosis is a zoonotic infection caused by the bacterial genus Brucella, which are gram-negative coccobacilli. Multiple myeloma is the clonal malignant neoplasm of plasma cells. Patients with brucellosis may present with hematological findings. It may even cause pancytopenia and mimic acute leukemia. However, coexistence of brucellosis with hematological malignancies, especially multiple myeloma, is rarely encountered and there are only a few cases reported in the literature. Both diseases may cause similar symptoms and laboratory findings, making the differential diagnosis challenging. A 72-year-old male patent presented with malaise, fever and diffuse joint pain. Serological testing for brucellosis turned out positive and he was started on antibacterial therapy. Although his fever had subsided, the laboratory parameters showed no improvement. The patient, who had progressive anemia and persistent high erythrocyte sedimentation rate, was referred to our hematology clinic for further evaluation and was diagnosed with multiple myeloma. He has received chemotherapy along with antibacterial therapy for brucellosis and is still under follow-up. In conclusion, brucellosis can mimic various diseases including hematologic malignancies and can lead to missing the diagnosis of a malignancy when seen concomitantly.
Brucellosis; Multiple myeloma; Anemia; Erythrocyte sedimentation rate
Dogu MH, Nizam N, Eren R, Suyani E.Is it Brucellosis or Multiple Myeloma? Or can it be both? J Hematol Mult Myeloma. 2016;1(1):1004.