Ann Pharmacol Pharm | Volume 8, Issue 1 | Research Article | Open Access

Substandard Medicines in Nigeria: Case Study of Four Commonly Used Medicines Using HPLC Analysis

Issa RB1, Olukotun A2, Sodiq T3, Lawal A4, Adefioye A5, Adesokan A5, Alkofahi D1 and Obeid MA1*

1Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Yarmouk University, Jordan
2Pediatrics, Kogi State Specialist Hospital, Nigeria
3Ahmadu Bello University, Nigeria
4Pediatrics, Children’s Specialist Hospital, Nigeria
5PreciseMed, Glasgow, UK

*Correspondance to: Mohammad A Obeid 

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Counterfeit, invariably substandard medicines pose huge safety concerns both in developed and developing countries, much worse in the latter. It carries huge morbidity and, in some cases, fatal mortality burden. This study used HPLC to determine percentage purity levels in four commonly used medicines in Nigeria namely, Adrenaline, Furosemide, Ceftriaxone and Ciprofloxacin. The study aims to scrutinize and analyze the purity composition of these above drugs purchased from different sources to address the safety and efficacy of common medicines patients use in Nigeria. Previous studies on revealed a wide range of doses of active pharmaceutical ingredients from 0% to >200% of the labelled dose, with industry standard set at 98% to 100%. This study revealed a percentage purity of 152% to 225% with the Adrenaline samples; Ceftriaxone samples, being the purest of the four samples, had 94.3% to 101% purity. The Ciprofloxacin samples had a percentage purity of 84% to 98%, while the Furosemide samples were 55.1% to 75.5% pure implying that industry quality control standards were not adhered to strictly. The implications of the higher concentrations of active ingredients in the Adrenaline samples analyzed could be adverse effects such as arrhythmias, while that of the lower concentration of Frusemide samples could be therapeutic failure.


Counterfeit medicines; HPLC; NAFDAC; Nigeria; Developing nations


Issa RB, Olukotun A, Sodiq T, Lawal A, Adefioye A, Adesokan A, et al. Substandard Medicines in Nigeria: Case Study of Four Commonly Used Medicines Using HPLC Analysis. Ann Pharmacol Pharm. 2023; 8(1): 1207.

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