Aleq M Jaffery, Yoon Ju Lee, Diane E Heck and Hong Duck Kim*
Department of Public Health, School of Health Sciences and Practice, USAFulltext PDF
Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) is one of the highest burden diseases, associated with health cost and intensive care, and vast morbidity and mortality. It develops differently following risk factors (i.e., smoking, high fat diet, alcohol, stressors, and sedentary behavior) which may cause blood flow and heart dysfunction such as microvascular dysfunction (e.g., Artery diseases), myocardial infarction, arrhythmias, angina, and atherosclerosis. There is still endpoint variation between actual demonstrated pathology and risk factors derived from intrinsic (or genetic risk) or extrinsic (or environmental risk). Previously, Lipoprotein was shown to affect blood flow and plaque formation in studies. In addition, there is compelling evidence to emphasize several risk factors in patient history such as a high blood pressure, vascular damage to heart value, and metabolic disorder could be associated with diets which may attribute to develop heart failure and stroke in clinic and animal model like ApoE transgenic animals. In this report, we review molecular tools (i.e., Omics or systemic biology equipped with various detection modules like genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and pharmacogenomics, etc.) for prevention of environmental risks and conduct sensitivity and validation in therapeutic options to reduce drug insensitivity from individual genetic diversity. Using Genomics, we visualized patient’s genomics variation or polymorphism by accessing DNA sequences for a comparison to those unaffected. Those outputs are worth to determine what genes are mutated and who more at risk due to their genetic makeup are. Furthermore, proteomics will enhance the study of targeting proteins, including their locations, structures, and functions to better regulate the cardiopathies or cardiac malfunctions. Metabolomics is the Omics tool for studying drug efficacy and metabolism that are involved in the transmission of cardiopathies. Moreover, Metabolites identification can enhance one’s knowledge of metabolic pathways to high fat diets, and how certain environmental factors and genetic factors surrounding blood flow and altered molecular network in plaque formation can affect the cardio-dysfunction and its regulatory pathways. Finally, pharmacogenomics will help determine effective drug on a more personalized based approach to ensure that anyone with any form of metabolic disorder or hypertension as predisposition chronic diseases pattern. This will specifically enlightens the value of systemic detection using molecular tools by integrate to target Lipoproteins the correct focus in the early cadiopathy process and validation in various therapeutic endpoints to ensure quality outcomes as a patient care.
Jaffery AM, Lee YJ, Heck DE, Kim HD. Genomics and Cardio-Vascular Disease (CVD): Molecular Targeting to Lipoprotein (A). Ann Drugs Therapeutic. 2019;1(1):1001.